News    Our location    Soonest activity    Contact us    Humor    Questions?    Forum   

General information
Accommodation in the Carpathians
Private Tours (VIP rafting)
Additional services
Sights along the routes
Instructors' school
Rafters' dictionary
Cavers' dictionary

Cavers' dictionary


Speleologist’s dictionary
Altimeter – an instrument that indicates height above sea level or the depth (for caves) based on an aneroid barometer.
Anorak – a warm waterproof hip-length jacket usually with a hood, originally worn in Polar Regions, but now worn for any outdoor activity.
Base – a group sleeping bag or a camp in cave.
Bahman – a kind of a knot of griping manner, similar to “prusyk” in principle.
Bowline – a knot used for securing a loop that will not slip at the end of a piece of rope.
Valise – a big or very big rock.
Verhinky – outer gloves made of tough cloth with high edges and elastic on wrist.
Oar – a spoon.
Vibra–a kind of wavy sole boots for climbing, are made of cast rubber and fillings like small metal shavings, in spoken language boots of such kind are called vibras.
Guy – a rope or sling ring used for deviation of the rope to a required side.
Eight – a release device, without prongs.
Eight – an 8-shaped knot.
YIAA knot – a tricky knot for carbine used for securing, twists the rope. Its peculiarity – rubs more rope against rope than against the carbine.
Whiskers – a piece of a rope with three loops (about three metres), used in CPT technique.
Herma – a leakproof bag for belongings, is packed into a transport backpack.
Hidra – a wet suit.
Hibbs – a self-securing self-grasp device.
Grapevine (double textile) – double fisherman`s knot for joining two ropes of both the same diameter and material.
Nine – a knot, a variety of “eight” but with one more torsion.
Hole – a cave.
Woodpecker – a person who punches hollows.
Iron – metal parts of equipment.
Zhumar – self-grasp device of fist-type. Usually used with another self-grasp device – crawl-zhumar or zhumar-zhumar.
To zhumar – to come up the rope in crawl-zhumar manner.
Hook – a small (1-5cm) cliff unevenness that is possible to hold on to with fingers or prop up it. They are called “support”.
Fireplace – the widest, like cracks, vertically elements of cliff relief where a person can fit. They can go up for ten metres and exceed man’s height. Deepening into the cave, fireplaces usually taper. In fireplaces jams may occur – cliff fragments that jammed. As a rule, they block the way, but can also be used as support point and self-secure.
1Carbine – a light automatic or semiautomatic rifle of limited range, connector when working with iron.
Acetylene/carbide – an acetylene lamp.
Karem – rope sagging in CPT technique.
Karimat – look “foam”.
Cornice – overhangs cliff area, cannot be climbed without special equipment.
Reel – a slippery and sloping hill in a cave.
Cocoon – a kind of a sleeping bag, usually for low temperatures.
Well – a vertical passage.
Condensate – a substance formed by condensation, such as a liquid from a vapour; in speleology – caused by people’s breath in fast shut tent.
Contest – time come up the rope with the help of two self-grasp devices.
Controlling knot – a knot tied next to the main one for security.
Crawl – self-grasp device of fist-type used with zhumar.
Lobbies – pricks on slope, caused by running and falling water. They can reach a few tens meters in width, stretch along the entire slope and can be filled with water or snow depending on season and landscape.
Lobby – a natural way of rockslide and avalanche. The bottom of lobby often has a gutter.
Macaroni – sinter of tubular shape.
Meander – a curved narrow passage.
Metro – a straight narrow passage, often a meander.
A woodpecker set – a tool kit for punching out a passage, it includes a hollow punch and a hammer.
Frontlet – the main lamp.
Window – a lateral passage in a well.
Organ – a vertical passage, usually high.
Eye – a short narrow vertical manhole.
Pedal – a length adjustable piece of a hoisting sling with two loops.
каріматFoam – a rug-like sleeping bag bedding made of polyurethane foam.
Polyurethane – a class of synthetic materials made by copolymerizing an isocyanate and a polyhydric alcohol and commonly used as foam (polyurethane foam) for insulation and packing, as fibres and hard inert coatings. Is used as a sleeping bag bedding.
Pee-pee-fax – toilet paper.
Foam bottom – a soft seat for a bottom, a piece of foam material trimmed with cloth, usually with a waist fastening.
 Jam – blockage of a cave passage.
Punch – a tool or machine for piercing holes in a rock for drift hooks.
Prusyk – a self-grasp in type knot used for self-security in case of one of the self-grasp devices breakdown.
Down-padded coat – a quilted coat with feather heat insulation material, covered with a synthetic waterproof outer layer.
Rapid – a variety of carbine, locks holdfast, used for fastening other pieces of equipment.
Wrap-rope – a synthetic thin peripheral rope 4-8 mm in diameter.
Bars, ladder – a release device.
Catapult – a release device, washer modification, an “eight” with prongs for fastening a rope during stop.
Self-grasp device – a device that moves along the rope in one way.
 Siphon – flooded place in the cave. Perfect example – a toilet sink sectional elevation.
Nozzle – a piece of rope used for timber to natural support when hanging up.
Speleology – (from Latin spēlaeum (cave) logia (science); from Greek spelaion (cave) and logos word) the scientific study of caves, esp. in respect of their geological formation, flora and fauna, morphology, microclimate and modern use.
Split – a self-piercing plugging chisel hook by Societe de Prospection et Conventions Techniques.
Spuskovuha, FSU – phase shifting device.
CPT, SRT, OBT – single rope techniques. Are divided into American (when the base is fasten in one place, the rope is deflected by guys) and European (hooks are every 10-12 metres, every third hook is duplicated).
Stalagmite – a cylindrical mass of calcium carbonate projecting upwards from the floor of a limestone cave: formed by precipitation from continually dripping water.
Stalagnate – when a stalagmite and a stalactite merge in one.
сталактитStalactite – a cylindrical mass of calcium carbonate hanging from the roof of a limestone cave: formed by precipitation from continually dripping water.
Lathe, frame – a hard backpack usually for carrying transporting bags, is made of aluminium pipes.
Sypuha (Pour) – a place from where sand or small stones pour.
Temniak (Dark) – a closed loop to fasten an ice axe, a hammer etc.
Theodolite – a surveying instrument for measuring horizontal and vertical angles, consisting of a small tripod-mounted telescope that is free to move in both the horizontal and vertical planes Also called (in the US and Canada): transit.
Trans, transporter – a cylindrical cargo bag.
Pipe – a narrow vertical passage in a cave.
 Tur – a pyramid of stones used for orientation in a cave.
Shtiht’s washer – a release device, a metal circle, the founder of the release devices family (a washer, an “eight”, a catapult).
Shklava – a narrow passage.